The Free Planets Alliance was a democratic government founded by Arle Heinnesen and other exiles from the Galactic Empire. Heinnesen led an exodus of serfs --the most oppressed element of Imperial society-- to find a new home in the far frontier. Arle Heinnesen did not live to see the journey end, and the ultimate destination would be named the planet Heinnesen in his honor. The planet of Heinessen would live on as the last bastion of democracy by the end of the series.
From UC 527 to UC 640, the Free Planets Alliance was a strong, idealistic democracy. However, after over 150 years of war with the Galactic Empire, the Free Planets Alliance government slowly became corrupt. The republican ideals of Arle Heinnesen and the Exiles were eventually abandoned in favor of a militaristic government, devoted fully to the anihilation of the Galactic Empire and the "liberation" of the Empire's citizens. The FPA began as a small group of 200,000 refugees, but when the war started to 150 million but would grow exponentially after the war began to 13 billion, eventually growing to 14 billion citizens by the last stage of the war.
Though a ruled by a democratically-elected Supreme Council, the government of the Free Planets Alliance was notoriously corrupt: the politicians would often use every means at their disposal to abuse the power they had been given.
Favoritsm in the National Draft
Families of influential men and women in the financial and governmental sectors were drafted less often than average citizens, and were less likely to be sent to the front lines. Only 15% of these 'elites' were ever subjected to the draft, and of those drafted less than 1% actually got sent to serve in the front line and usually it was by request. An anti-war party attempted to get the Truniht administration to investigate this unfairness in the draft, but the administration refused to acknowledge the problem in any way.
The Imperial Invasion
Following Yang Wenli's capture of Iserlohn Fortress, the Free Planets Alliance was in a position to pressure the Galactic Empire into an equitable peace treaty. The social infrastructure of the Alliance was at the breaking point, and decades of war had left the economy in shambles. A peace treaty was the only hope the Alliance had for survival. Instead of acting for the best interests of the nation, the Supreme Council determined to launch an invasion of the Empire. Poll numbers indicated that the cabinet would lose re-election unless they drummed up patriotic fervor in a massive display of military accomplishent. And so, in order to ensure their short-term political futures, the heads of state opted to set the Free Planets Alliance along a course of action that would inevitably lead to the destruction of the nation.
Patriotic Knights Corps
The Patriotic Knights Corps was a group of ex-military thugs who, at the command of Job Truniht, brutally enforced the policies and ideologies of the FPA government. Acting as a secret police service, the PKC was frequenly involved in coercion, extortion and murder. Citizens who spoke out against the war would be beaten to death. Politicians would have their families killed, and homes firebombed. The chief role of the PKC was to create an atmosphere of fear within the Alliance, thus ensuring the criticism of the war would be kept to a bare minimum. Though technically an illegal terrorist organization, the Patriotic Knights Corps had the backing of several powerful men in the Alliance government, and as such the civilian and military law enforcement agencies did nothing to protect the populace from them.
Even decorated war heroes and high-ranking officers in the Alliance military, like Fleet Admiral Yang Wenli, were not immune to attack from the PKC.
In Imperial Year 489, the Alliance Government began a series of illegal hearing against leading military officers, led by Henrique Olibeira. The purpose of these hearings was partly to expose possible illegal activities by the military, and thus further weaken public support for the armed services--which had already waned considerably following Admiral Dwight Greenhill's short-lived military coup--but were mostly about intimidating high-ranking military officers, and thereby reinforce the authority and legitimacy of Job Truniht's government.
Officers were kept under house arrest, and subject to long interrogations (often resembling inquisitions), and were forbidden contact with anyone else. The hearings were halted after Admiral Yang Wenli was subjected to one at the same time as an Imperial Fleet laid siege to Iserlohn Fortress.